As malicious software  such as viruses and malware become more evolved and sophisticated, so have the software and hardware technologies for helping to prevent these types of threats and attacks.

Malware and virus threats have been very costly for schools and businesses alike in both attack defense and response technologies and operations. The Internet has significantly raised the profile of external threats to these environments while some of the greatest threats still continue, such as internal attacks.

Internal attacks that have the highest potential for damage result from the activities of insiders in the most trusted positions, such as network administrators. Insiders involved with malicious activities are likely to have specific goals and objectives, such as planting a Trojan horse or unauthorized file system browsing while maintaining legitimate access to the systems. More commonly, insiders do not have malicious intent but may plant malicious software by unintentionally connecting infected systems or devices to an internal network resulting in a compromise of the integrity/confidentiality of the system or by affecting system performance, availability, and/or storage capacity.

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